Mayavada Darpanam

Wednesday, January 31, 2007

Attack on anubandha chatushtayam of Advaita based on shruti - 4


Prostrations to all.

We discussed the advaitin’s words in the previous mail about the difference and similarity between Kutastha and Nirguna Para Brahman (Paramaatman). The advaitin explained that Kutastha is the same as Brahman but seemingly limited by the limitations of body-mind-intellect. As long as a seeker finds the limitations of the various adjuncts of the atman, he will find the Kutastha or Atman as being limited and hence different from Brahman; but once the seeker realizes that the adjuncts are mere illusions then he will realize that Kutastha is same as Brahman.

Thus the seeker has to always remember that he is the same as Brahman of the nature of Sat Chit Ananda and when the adjuncts seem to be present, he is the mere witness/substratum of the adjuncts. Remembering this, the seeker will be unaffected by the activities in the world & hence be ever blissful. Slowly the realization will dawn that there are no real adjuncts and whatever really exists is only the ultimate reality of non-dual Brahman.

The advaitin continues the analysis of the Gita slokas thus:

Etasmaat bhagavaan urdhvam uktham “aksharaadapi chottamah” ithi

Therefore (since akshara and paramaatman are same but different because of the witness-hood of the illusory adjuncts in the case of akshara purusha) the Lord proclaims later that “I am greater than the uttama purusha”

(Now the advaitin is explaining the sloka:
Yasmaat ksharam ateethoham aksharaadapi cha uttamah
Atosmi loke vede cha prathithah purusha uttamah

As I am above (beyond) kshara purushas and greatest among akshara purusha, therefore I am known in the world and Vedas as uttama purusha)

Aksharaat kutasthaat uttamah srestah upaadhi-saakshitva abhaavaat

(I am) Greater, superior, than akshara which is kutastha because of the absence of the witness-hood of the adjuncts (in the case of kutastha).

Atah asmaat kaaranaat aham loke vede cha prathitah ukthah prasiddhah vaa uttama purushah aksharaat sresta bhinna eva asmi

Therefore, because of this reason (that I don’t have the witness-hood), I am called or famous in the Vedas and the world as uttama purusha who is superior and different surely from the kutastha.

Vyavahaare uttama purushah aksharaat bhinna eva upaadhivashaat

(How I am different and similar to Kutastha???)
In the vyavahaara dasha (empirical state when the seeker sees the adjuncts – similar to a person while dreaming), uttama purusha is different surely from akshara because akshara purusha has the various upaadhis or adjuncts (associated with the adjuncts not directly but as the witness or saakshi).

Kinthu paramaarthatho akshara purusha eva uttama purusha dvaita abhaavaat upaadhi mithyaatva bodhaat cha

But at the ultimate level, akshara purusha alone is uttama purusha because of the absence of duality and after realization that the upaadhis are mithya or unreal (Here the word mithya means unreal as the state is ultimate or after knowing the illusion in reality).


Whatever the advaitin is explaining here, we have already dealt in the previous mail. But still as the Upanishads also explain things again and again in order to emphasize and to make the seekers focus on the same, we will also do the same.

Here the advaitin is explaining the 18th sloka where the Lord gives the reasons as to why Uttama Purusha is different from kshara and akshara purusha. As we already know, kshara purusha is the jeeva who is mutable or dies. Uttama Purusha is the eternal reality and hence kshara purusha is different from uttama purusha. The Lord thereby says that ksharam ateethah aham or I am beyond kshara purusha. Here “beyond” only means that I am superior in that kshara purusha has a birth-death whereas I am eternal. The Lord then says that I am supreme amongst akshara purushas. The supremacy is because of akshara purusha being a witness to illusory adjuncts whereas uttama purusha is non-dual eternal Brahman. The uttama purusha is beyond all distinctions and limitations – it never can even be subject to seeming limitations like the akshara purusha as it is Nirguna (without any qualities), nirapeksha (absolute) and nirupaadhi (without any upaadhis or adjuncts).

As long as the limitations of pot exists or is seen to exist, the pot-space is different from infinite-space though both are the same only. Similarly as long as the seeker sees the adjuncts of body-mind-intellect, there is difference between kutastha and Brahman though both are the same.

All these explanations are to show that kutastha and Brahman are one and the same but seemingly different. We all are kutastha only because “I” am the witness to all activities. Thus we all are in fact Brahman only but seemingly different because of the adjuncts of body-mind. Thus the kutastha in hariram is different from the kutastha in Sankaracharya – but both are one and the same Brahman only. If hariram knows this, then he will not be affected by worldly activities but will be ever blissful as he knows that his nature is that of Brahman (satchidananda roopam).

The whole analysis of Vedanta or any seeking is eternal bliss – thus once we atleast remember that we are kutastha and not jeeva, that is more than enough. As time passes, we will ourselves come to realize that kutastha is none other than Brahman.

Let us all as the Lord mentions try to remember that we are kutastha atman which is ever blissful and a mere witness to all dual notions of happiness-sorrow, cold-heat etc.

We will continue with the advaitin’s explanation in the next mail.

Prostrations to all.

Let a moment not pass by without remembering God


Post a Comment

<< Home