Mayavada Darpanam

Monday, January 01, 2007

Attack on anubandha chatushtayam of Advaita based on shruti - 1


Prostrations to all.

Madhva after logically trying to prove Advaita to be bereft of the anubandha chathustayam without which the system cannot be started, enters into quotations from sruthi, smrithi and the sutras. First Madhva quotes from the Bhagavad Gita to show that Vedanta speaks about Dvaita only and doesn’t support Advaita. The verses that Madhva are the famous last five slokas of the fifteen chapter (Purushottama Yoga) of the Bhagavad Gita. These five slokas are interpreted by each system of Vedanta as supporting their view but all the different views are feasible for the explanation of these. But if we really analyze the slokas, Advaitic interpretation alone is ultimate right as logic and experience support this interpretation. It cannot be argued that Advaita cannot stand logic because we have already seen that all the logical arguments of Madhva against Advaita are sufficiently answered and Advaitic concepts are fully logical.

We will first see Madhva’s or dvaitic interpretation of the slokas and then see the advaitin’s interpretation. Madhva doesn’t comment on these slokas but only quotes them (maybe because there was already his bhashya on the gita) whereas Jaya Teertha explains few words of the verses.

Dvaavimau purushau loke ksharascha akshara eva cha
Ksharah sarvaani bhootaani kutasthah akshara uchyathe

There are two purushas in the world one being kshara purusha and the other being akshara purusha. Kshara purusha is all the living beings whereas akshara purusha is kutastha or sakshi or witness (as per Madhva akshara is lakshmi devi who is above all purushas both muktha and amuktha whereas kshara purusha are the various jeevas).

Uttamah purushah tu anyah paramaatmethi udaahrithah
Yo loka trayam aavishya bhibharthi avyaya ishwarah

Uttama purusha or Ishwara or Vishnu is different from these two purushas (kshara and akshara) and is called as paramaatman (the word meaning supreme atman). Vishnu is also known as Ishwara (controller of all beings) who is all-pervasive and supports the world.

Yasmaat ksharam atheethoham aksharaat api cha uttamah
Ato asmi loke vede cha prathithah purusha uttamah

As “I” (Vishnu) am higher than kshara purushas and greatest among akshara purusha, therefore I am known in the world & Vedas (normal laukika usage and vedic usage as well) as uttama purusha.

Yo maamevam asammoodah jaanaathi purushottamam
Sah sarvavid bhajathi maam sarva bhaavena bhaaratha

He who is without delusion and thus knows me as the uttama purusha, he knowing everything worships me in all ways O Arjuna.

Ithi guhyathamam shaastram idam uktham maya anagha
Etat budhvaa buddhimaan syaat kritha krithyascha bhaaratha

Thus I have propounded to you the most secret scripture; having known this a person becomes intelligent and has done whatever is to be done, O Arjuna.

According to the Dvaita Vedanta, the jeeva is ever different from Vishnu. This is supported by the Lord himself as the jeevas are mentioned as kshara purushas and Vishnu is mentioned as Uttama purusha (distinct from kshara purushas). We will not enter into how dvaita defines various types of jeeva etc. but whoever interested can go through Madhva’s tattva sankhyaana or tattva viveka.

We will enter into the advaitin’s interpretation of the above slokas quoted by Madhva in the next mail.

Prostrations to all.


Let a moment not pass by without remembering God


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