Mayavada Darpanam

Monday, December 04, 2006

Attack on adhikaari and sambandha of Advaita - 4


Prostrations to all.

We will enter into the last part of the attack of Madhva on the anubandha chathustayam of Advaita. Since this portion is very short, we will see the advaitin’s reply as well to the same.

Madhvacharya after saying that vishaya and prayojana are not valid for advaita, states that adhikaari and sambandha also are not valid.

Vishayaprayojana abhaavaadeva adhikaari cha

Since vishaya and prayojana are not there, therefore adhikaari is also not there.

Tadabhaavaadeva sambandho api

Because adhikaari is also not there, sambandha is also not valid.


We can have an adhikaari only if there is a vishaya to be sought and prayojana to be attained. Since prayojana and vishaya was refuted by Madhva, therefore adhikaari is also not valid.

As long as the goal of “reaching office” is there, there will be an adhikaari for the goal. But when there is no goal of “reaching office”, there cannot be any adhikaari at all.

The vishaya of advaita which is brahma atma aikya jnaana is not there. The prayojana of ajnaana nivritti is also not there because ajnaana itself is not possible (it cannot be proved through logic that ajnaana is present). Since vishaya and prayojana is not there, the adhikaari who seeks ajnaana nivritti is also not there. This is what Madhva is stating that since vishaya and prayojana is not valid for Advaita, adhikaari is also not valid.

We have learned that sambandha is relation between prayojana and vishaya. Since both are not there, sambandha is also not valid.

Madhva after pointing out that adhikaari is not there, is indirectly saying that since adhikaari is not there the system of Advaita itself cannot be started; any intelligent person will thus not follow the system of advaita.

Let’s now see the advaitin’s reply (as below) to the above statements of Madhva.

Vishaya prayojana sambhavaat adhikaari cha api asthi

Since vishaya and prayojana are possible and valid (as proved by the advaitin earlier in the work) therefore adhikaari is also present for advaita.

Adhikaari cha vakthavyam advaitaachaaryaih bahu krithyau

Adhikaari has been explained in many words by advaita acharyas in many works.

Bhaashyakaaraistu vakthavyam vistharena brahma sutra bhashyaih

Bhashyakaara (Sankara) has explained the adhikaari in depth in his Brahma Sutra Bhashya.

Tad idam samgrahena proktham aachaarya vachanaih –

We will explain it in brief with acharya’s own words -

Vivekino virakthasya shamaadiguna shaalinah
Mumukshoreva hi brahma jijnaasaa yogyathaa mathaa

Whoever is endowed with the saadhana chathustayam of viveka, vairagya, six qualities of the mind and mumukshutva – they are eligible for brahma jnaana (meaning that brahma jnaana will be fruitful for them). (This verse is from Vivekachoodamani of Sankara)

Idamartham asthi – yah samsaaradukhaih nivrittim kaankshathi tadeva moksha adhikaari asthi sah advaitaananda roopo mokshah kaankshathi

This is the essence of the words of acharya – he who desires removal of sorrow from the ocean of samsaara, he alone is the adhikaari for moksha or liberation. He desires moksha in the form of the Atman which is adviteeya and ananda roopa (one alone and blissful).

Atha yad proktham anandateerthaih “vishaya prayojana abhaavaat eva adhikaari cha” tadapi nirastham

Thus what has been mentioned by Madhvacharya (the sanyaasa name of Madhva is anandateertha) that adhikaari is not there as vishaya and prayojana are not there, this has also been refuted.

Atah sambandho api asthi na tad nirastham

Since vishaya, prayojana and adhikaari have been proved to be valid therefore sambandha is also there and not refuted (as Madhva claims).


It is rather a sad fact that even though many advaita works clearly mentions the anubandha chathustayam, still the dvaitins claim that these are not valid for Advaita. The advaitin here quotes from Sankara’s Vivekachoodamani to mention that adhikaari is one who is endowed with saadhana chathustayam.

Saadhana chathustayam is:

Viveka – discrimination between real and unreal – that Brahman alone is real and everything else is only an illusion in Brahman
Vairagya –dispassion towards unreal things and passion towards the ultimate reality of Brahman
Shamaadi shatka sampatti – the six qualities of the mind which are shama (calmness of the mind), dama (control of the external sense organs), uparathi (withdrawal of the sense organs from their sense objects and fixing them unto the Self), titiksha (forbearance), sraddha (faith in the Guru’s words and the scriptures) and samaadhana (tranquility of the mind as it is ever fixed in Brahman)
Mumukshutva – burning desire for liberation – striving to get liberated from the ocean of samsaara characterized by sorrows and sufferings

We have dealt with the saadhana chathustayam in many other threads and hence we will not go into these. It is important to remember that though the direct meaning of the verse means that only a person endowed with saadhana chathustayam is eligible to know Brahman, it only means that one who is endowed alone can apprehend Brahman through realization. Any person who is not endowed will still be learning about Brahman but still be unable to get out of the ocean of samsaara. These are people like dvaitins and others who have learned things but still are not eligible to know Brahman.

The advaitin explains this sloka to put forth the two aspects of Moksha. One aspect is removal of sorrow and the other is enjoyment of bliss. Moksha is not mere removal of sorrow alone but it is enjoyment of bliss which is one’s nature. Thus moksha is characterized by dukha nivritti or removal of sorrow and sukha avaapthi or attainment of sukha. The analysis of both is controversial and has different aspects – hence we will not enter into an analysis but will conclude that moksha is dukha nivritti and sukha avaapthi.

Thus the advaitin has proved that adhikaari is valid for Advaita and thereby sambandha is also valid. Therefore anubandha chathustayam is valid for Advaita – hence advaita can be started or rather advaita should be started by all seekers of bliss.

After proving the anubandha chathustayam to be invalid through logic, Madhva next enters into quotations which we will see in the next mail in the series.

Prostrations to all.

Let a moment not pass by without remembering God


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